Italian Gay Leader Dies

One of the most important gay activists in Italian history died Nov. 4 of colon cancer.

Massimo Consoli, 61, also was a journalist, writer, playwright, poet, theorist, translator, archivist and historian. He wrote more than 30 books, mostly on gay issues.

Among his many accomplishments, Consoli founded two Italian gay organizations in the days before the Stonewall Riots.

In 1971, he wrote Gay Manifesto, which inspired the creation of other gay organizations, including the important Italian Revolutionary Homosexual United Front, FUORI!.

In 1976, Consoli organized the nation's first pride-related activities. He went on to organize hundreds of other demonstrations, conferences, exhibitions and intellectual and artistic events.

Later, he also was an AIDS and safer-sex organizer.

"I've lived the history of the gay movement. It's inside me," Consoli told the International Herald-Tribune last year.

His Web site,, will remain online, maintained by friends.

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